3. HAPPI and HappiEVA data

3.1. Experiments for 1.5 and 2.0 degree warming

3.1.1. AMIP-style HAPPI experiments

A set of AMIP-style large ensemble experiments (125 members) were carried out with NorESM1-Happi (Graff et al., 2019) for three climate states:

  • the present-day climate (the All-Hist experiment),

  • a climate that is 1.5 degrees warmer than pre-industrial conditions (the Plus15-Future experiment), and

  • a climate that is 2.0 degrees warmer than the pre-industrial (the Plus20-Future experiments)

as a part of the HAPPI initiative (Half A degree additional warming, Prognosis and Projected Impacts; http://happimip.org; Mitchell et al., 2017).

CMOR-ized data for NorESM1-Happi and the other participating models can be retrieved from http://portal.nersc.gov/c20c/data.html

Raw model output for NorESM1-Happi can be retrived from the NIRD research data archive:

3.1.2. Fully-coupled experiments

Fully-coupled experiments targeting
  • 1.5 degree warming (relative to pre-industrial conditions) and

  • 2.0 degree warming

were conducted with NorESM1-Happi. See Graff et al. (2019) for details.

The data (raw model output) can be retrieved from the NIRD research data archive: https://doi.org/10.11582/2020.00021

3.1.3. Slab-ocean experiments

Slab-ocean experiments were conducted for
  • a present-day climate that is as similar to that in the NorESM1-Happi All-Hist experiment as possible

  • a 1.5 degree warmer climate (relative to the pre-industrial) that is as similar to that in the NorESM1-Happi Plus15-Future experiment as possible

  • a 2.0 degree warmer climate (relative to the pre-industrial) that is as similar to that in the NorESM1-Happi Plus20-Future experimet as possible

The data (raw model output) can be retrieved from the NIRD research data archive: https://doi.org/10.11582/2020.00013

3.2. CMIP5 DECK and scenario experiments with NorESM1-Happi

A set of fully-coupled DECK experiments and scenario experiments were carried out with NorESM1-Happi (Graff et al., 2019) to enable an extensive validation of the model in line with the CMIP5 protocol (note that these experiments are not a part of the official CMIP5 data set):

  • a pre-industrial control simulation (the piControl experiment)

  • three historical members for the time period 1850-2005 (the Hist1, Hist2, and Hist3 experiments)

  • Hist1 with external forcings as in 1850, but with with varying (historical)

    • greenhouse gases

    • aerosols and aerosol precursor emissions

    • natural solar radiation and vulcanos

  • RCP scenario experiments in which the radiative forcing at the end of the 21st century corresponds to

    • 2.6 W/m2

    • 4.5 W/m2

    • 8.5 W/m2

  • experiments in forcings are as in the pre-industrial climate except the CO2 concentrations which are

  • instantly quadroupled at the beginning of the experiment (the abrupt-4xCO2experiment)

    • increased by 1% per year untill quadroupling and then held constant (the gradual-4xCO2 experiment)

The data (raw model output) can be retrieved from the NIRD research data archive: https://doi.org/10.11582/2020.00021

In addition, a set of slab-ocean experiments were conducted to assess the climate sensitivity of NorESM1-Happi under the slab-ocean configuration (for details, see Graff et al., 2019). These include
  • a pre-industrial (1850) control simulation

  • a 2xCO2 experiment

  • a 4xCO2 experiment

Data from the slab-ocean experiments can be retrieved from the NIRD research data archive: https://doi.org/10.11582/2020.00014

3.3. References

Graff, L. S., Iversen, T., Bethke, I., Debernard, J. B., Seland, Ø., Bentsen, M., Kirkevåg, A., Li, C., and Olivié, D. J. L.: Arctic amplification under global warming of 1.5 and 2 ◦C in NorESM1-Happi, Earth System Dynamics, 10, 569–598, https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-10-569-2019, 2019.

Mitchell, D., AchutaRao, K., Allen, M., Bethke, I., Forster, P., Fuglestvedt, J., Gillett, N., Haustein, K., Iverson, T., Massey, N., Schleussner, C.-F., Scinocca, J., Seland, Ø., Shiogama, H., Shuckburgh, E., Sparrow, S., Stone, D., Wallom, D., Wehner, M., and Zaaboul, R.: Half a degree Additional warming, Projections, Prognosis and Impacts (HAPPI): Background and Experimental Design, Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 571–583, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-10-571-2017, 2017.